The Most Recently Released Updates Concerning Manufacturing

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A NIO electric car factory in Hefei, China. The country has long lavished subsidies on its electric car industry. planned to put more electric cars on the road, the company believed that consumers, not governments, should decide when to stop buying gasoline- and diesel-powered models. “I think it works best when, instead of mandating, customers are choosing the technology that meets their needs,” she said at the time. China has taken a different approach. Given the cost and complexity of developing electric cars, the government has set big targets and offered the support to help its companies meet them. A battery factory in Taizhou in the eastern province of Jiangsu. The cost of a battery pack is as much as $12,000 for a high-performance car, like a Tesla. But battery costs are falling.Credit...ChinaTopix, via Associated Press When it comes to the car industry, “the most important thing is what the government does,” said Liu Jing, a professor at the Cheung Kong Graduate School of Business in Beijing. The big obstacle right now to selling electric cars is cost. Making the battery pack costs as little as $1,500 for the simplest Chinese-brand electric subcompacts, which are not really suitable for highway driving because of their slowness and modest range. But the cost is as much as $12,000 for a high-performance car, like a Tesla. Gasoline engines in each category of car size and performance typically cost less than half as much. Yet battery costs around the world are tumbling by nearly one-fifth each year. Chinese companies with lavish government backing have built immense battery factories deep in western China, notably in Qinghai Province, where much of the lithium for the batteries is mined. Mass production has yielded formidable economies of scale. China is also the world’s main producer of electric motors and a wide range of other electronics. China’s drive for dominance in electric cars began in 2007. That was when Wen Jiabao, then China’s premier, unexpectedly selected a former Audi engineer, Wan Gang, to become the minister of science and technology. Mr.

https://www.nytimes.com/2021/01/29/business/gm-china-electric-cars.html

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But as global emissions have continued to rise, as countries have failed to hit even modest targets and as the consequences of a warming world have become more tangible, the push for leaders to act more aggressively has become only more urgent. “Time is running out,” Niklas Höhne, a German climatologist and founding partner of NewClimate Institute, said in an interview. “The longer we wait, the more difficult it will be to turn emissions downward.” Höhne is also part of the team behind Climate Action Tracker , an effort that tracks what cuts countries have vowed to take and how they are, or aren’t, living up to those promises. He said that with the pledges countries have made, the world is currently on pace to reach 2.6 Celsius (4.7 Fahrenheit) of warming by the end of the century. But based on measures they have actually put into place, the figure is closer to 2.9 Celsius (5.2 Fahrenheit). At either level, scientists say humans would be forced to grapple with ever more extreme weather events, crippling heat waves and wildfires, and disastrous levels of flooding that could leave some coastal communities uninhabitable. The level of ambition necessary varies greatly between countries, Raftery said, noting that the United States would need to increase its existing goal by 38 percent to do its part toward achieving the 2C goal. The United Kingdom, which has already made progress on its promises, would need a boost of about 17 percent. Meanwhile, countries such as Brazil, which have seen emissions climb despite promises to scale them back, would need bolder action to make up for lost time. Kelly Levin, a senior associate at the World Resources Institute, noted that Tuesday’s study did not take into account more recent policies that some large countries have adopted or already begun to implement, and which could put the world on a more hopeful path. “Given the recent momentum we have seen — for example, from the Biden administration’s recent executive orders, to bans of the internal combustion engine in countries and by companies — their estimates, which are based on recent trends, are likely too conservative,” Levin said in an email. Still, she said, by any calculation there remains “a wide gulf between where emissions are headed today” and where they need to be to avoid the worst impacts of climate change. The findings also echo those published late last year by the U.N. Environment Program, which said nations would need to “roughly triple” their current emissions-cutting pledges to limit the Earth’s warming to “well below” 2 degrees Celsius. To reach the loftier goal of holding warming to 1.5 degrees Celsius (2.7 degrees Fahrenheit), that report found, countries would need to increase their targets at least fivefold, a change that would require rapid and profound shifts in how societies travel, produce electricity and eat. A critical moment will arrive later this year when leaders from around the world assemble in Glasgow for a U.N. climate conference, which was delayed a year because of the pandemic. Presidents and prime ministers worldwide already are facing pressure to show up with more ambitious pledges in hand. Some of the world’s biggest economies have said they intend to do just that. China, the world’s largest emitter, has promised to reach zero net carbon emissions by 2060. The European Union has said that by the end of the decade, it intends to cut emissions “at least 55 percent” from 1990 levels.

https://www.washingtonpost.com/climate-environment/2021/02/09/countries-must-ramp-up-climate-pledges-by-80-percent-hit-key-paris-target-study-finds/